Utilizing the search technique, 16,699 paperwork have been recognized within the matter of digital well being applied sciences in cardiovascular drugs. The primary article on document, revealed in 1961 in Circulation is titled ‘Digital system for correct identification of cardiac conduction system- its use in open-heart surgical procedure’9. Within the interval of 30 years to the early 1990’s solely 35 extra related papers have been revealed. Because the mid-1990’s there was an accelerating publication pattern till 2021, when over 2,300 articles have been revealed in yr (Fig. 1a). Throughout the observable exponential pattern on this matter, there are not any distinct jumps in analysis exercise. Round 60% of the analysis output is within the type of unique analysis articles (together with case research), adopted by convention proceedings papers (14%), assembly abstracts (13%) and evaluate articles (9%).
The highest globally cited articles have fairly distinct matters (see Supplementary Desk 2). Essentially the most cited paper is “Versatile polymer transistors with excessive stress sensitivity for utility in digital pores and skin and well being monitoring” authored by Schwartz, Tee10. The paper has obtained 1,337 citations in WoS gives info on the fabrication of a novel versatile pressure-sensitive sensor that has excessive stress and time decision capabilities to repeatedly monitor the human radial artery pulse wave. It’s a step-change innovation as a result of beforehand, solely complicated devices equivalent to micromanometers might learn a pulse with such accuracy. Moreover, the versatile stress sensors developed could possibly be utilized in cell well being monitoring and distant diagnostics in cardiovascular drugs. Different extremely cited papers embrace matters about health-related behaviours equivalent to sedentary existence11, remedy adherence12, robots13, and software program14, which highlights the variety inside this matter.
Particular topic areas have been recognized utilizing WoS Classes. Whereas a lot of the literature is concentrated in Cardiac and Cardiovascular Programs (n = 4,809, 28%), it reaches throughout a variety of sub-disciplines, together with Well being Care Science Companies (n = 1,643, 10%), Engineering Biomedical (n = 1,449, 9%), Engineering Electrical Digital (n = 1,255, 8%), Medication Common Inner (n = 1,201, 7%), Peripheral Vascular Illness (n = 1,142, 7%), Medical Informatics (n = 1,118, 7%), Scientific Neurosciences (n = 941, 6%) and Rehabilitation (n = 752, 4%). Circulation and European Coronary heart Journal are the dominant retailers for publications on this space of analysis (Fig. 1b), with round 700 paperwork attributed to those two alone.
Writer contributors and networks of collaboration
Over 75,000 authors have contributed to the subject, 2,956 of whom have authored 5 or extra articles. Authors with greater than 45 contributions embrace Giuseppe Boriani (College-Hospital Polyclinic of Modena, Italy), Rizwan Sohail (Baylor School of Medication, United States of America [USA]), Tiny Jaarsma (Linkoping College, Sweden), Paul Friedman (Mayo Clinic School of Medication, USA), Bruce Wilkoff (Cleveland Clinic, USA), Larry Baddour (Mayo Clinic, USA), Jinseok Lee (Kyung Hee College, South Korea) Julie Redfern (College of Sydney, Australia) and Jenny Wang (College of Sheffield, England).
Publications originating from the USA have been most frequent (n = 5,493), adopted by England (n = 1,494), Italy (1,338), Germany (n = 1,191), China (n = 1047), Canada (n = 1030), and Australia (n = 908) (Fig. 2). There are fewer contributions from Africa and South America (apart from Brazil). Authors primarily based within the USA are concerned in all of the strongest collaborations; with England (n = 260), Canada (n = 248), China (n = 163), Germany (n = 163), Australia (n = 159) and Italy (n = 146) indicating that lingual similarities and geographical proximity don’t essentially foster larger collaboration. Collaborations between researchers from English-speaking nations equivalent to Australia, Canada, England and USA and Center Japanese nations Iran, Iraq and Saudi Arabia are amongst the most recent. Lastly, we are able to additionally observe that there are few low and middle-income nations producing scholarly analysis on this space.
Semantic evaluation; key phrases, titles and abstracts
Desk 1 reveals the highest key phrases (see additionally Supplementary Fig. 1 for density of co-occurrence of key phrases within the literature). In slightly below two years for the reason that time period emerged, Covid-19 (and alternate options e.g. sars-cov-2) have already garnered 270 mentions, reflecting the crucial of managing care when bodily distancing is demanded. Key phrases additionally present perception into the temporal shifts in analysis and scholarly focus. Desk 1 additionally reveals the highest key phrases with the strongest bursts of quotation and the key phrases with the latest and strongest bursts of quotation. Youngsters and infants, males, youth, and aged sufferers are the populations of curiosity for students, as proven by bursts. Youngsters gave the impression to be a powerful analysis curiosity for over 20 years (1991-2013), in parallel with analysis matters equivalent to blood stress, cardiovascular reactivity and household historical past.
Within the early Nineties, when digital well being improvements have been quickly accelerating in cardiovascular drugs analysis within the early Nineties, the key phrase bursts have been typically related to cardiovascular threat components (e.g. blood stress, train). Extra lately, bursts of exercise are associated to trendy terminology affiliated with complicated information and sensors, together with ‘IoT’ (web of issues), ‘neural community’ and ‘photoplethysmography’.
Main divisions of digital applied sciences in cardiovascular analysis
Extra perception into matter construction of the subject was discovered by finishing an evaluation of the incidence of phrases within the title and abstracts of articles. Determine 3 reveals the frequency of the co-occurrence of phrases and is complimented by the averaged publication yr of articles containing these phrases and the typical variety of citations articles with these phrases obtain. The evaluation revealed that there are 5 main divisions. Desk 2 reveals the highest phrases, most cited phrases, and youngest phrases for every cluster.
Cluster 1 (Fig. 3; purple, 491 objects) focusses on Cardiac digital implantable gadgets (CIEDs), together with pacemakers, implantable cardioverter-defibrillators and different gadgets used to assist management of monitor heartbeats in people with well being rhythm problems and coronary heart failure (HF).
Cluster 2 (orange, 474 objects) represents the world of Cell well being expertise for secondary prevention of CVD. This consists of strategies of measuring threat components and modes for intervention designed to have an effect on the actions that people take relating to their well being. This division is saturated with phrases equivalent to bodily exercise, wholesome life-style, Fitbit and step depend, and is related to medical trials.
Cluster 3 (gray, 441 objects) consists of phrases associated to Wearable applied sciences. A big focus of this clusters is utilizing photoplethysmography – or sensor-technology to measure physiological parameters.
The final of the foremost divisions, Cluster 4 (yellow, 195 objects) is regarding Know-how purposes in stroke rehabilitation. Doable interventions for post-stroke rehabilitation have included use of immersive applied sciences and gamification equivalent to Digital Actuality and robotics for rising motion.
Utilizing the interactive hyperlink to the visible illustration (see caption of Fig. 3), it’s decided that a few of the latest phrases in Cluster 1 are associated to the Covid-19 pandemic (‘lockdown’, ‘pandemic’, ‘sars cov’). All through the clusters, there’s diminished incidence of phrases associated to minority populations equivalent to ‘incapacity’, ‘rural’ and ‘culturally numerous’.
The smaller division, Cluster 5 (crimson, 57 objects) consists of phrases associated to Emergency cardiovascular care. The care and administration of out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA) is evolving and is strongly influenced by rising digital applied sciences. Examples embrace wearable life detection applied sciences to enhance survival, drones delivering automated defibrillators to the scene of the arrest, and developments in cell and digital expertise used to leverage bystander response15.
Analyzing collaboration, Fig. 4 reveals clusters of authors who regularly work collectively to supply scholarly analysis. This determine doesn’t characterize all 75,000 authors who’ve contributed to this matter total, solely those that have contributed to the central community of analysis (see Supplementary Desk 1 for particulars of every cluster). There are ten clusters with ten or extra authors.
Clusters 1, 2, 3, 6, and 10 are teams of students researching cardiac electrophysiology. Nonetheless, there are some minor variations in analysis matter, for instance, clusters 3 and 6 is targeted on cardiac resynchronisation remedy, while clusters 2 and 6 are lead extraction and administration, and cluster 10 is related to analysis in infections related CIEDs. Cluster 1 could be very homogenous and primarily based in Western Europe, with few exceptions. Equally, Cluster 6 relies in North America, with a number of authors affiliated with Cleveland Clinic. Cluster 5, one other group researching thromboembolic illnesses and telecardiology, is unique to Italian affiliations. Except for matters associated to CIEDs, 4 of the opposite main collaborative teams are researching cardiopulmonary resuscitation (cluster #4), telemonitoring in HF and stroke prevention (cluster #7), mHealth and telemonitoring in HF (cluster #8) and secondary prevention of coronary coronary heart illness (CHD) (cluster #9).
The strongest hyperlinks inside this central creator community are between Ewa Piotrowicz and Ryszard Piotrowicz (cluster 7, hyperlink energy = 23.73), Friedrich Koehler and Kerstin Koehler (cluster 18, 13.50), and Clara Chow and Julie Redfern (cluster 9, 13.78). Nearly all of the strongest hyperlinks are between authors in the identical cluster, apart from frequent collaboration between Julie Redfern and Lis Neubeck (cluster 9 and 15 respectively, hyperlink energy = 7.33), which hyperlinks two teams of multidisciplinary clinician researchers who’re focussed on secondary prevention of CHD and CR.
Influential references of digital expertise and cardiovascular science literature
Influential articles related to the particular matter, ranked by native quotation depend, are listed in Supplementary Desk 3. This metric considers the reference lists of paperwork within the total dataset and what number of citations the references obtain. Based mostly on this metric, ‘Telemonitoring in Sufferers with Coronary heart Failure’16 is essentially the most influential examine on this discipline. The examine indicated that the appliance of telemonitoring for sufferers lately hospitalized for HF didn’t enhance outcomes. The opposite two most influential papers inside this matter are ‘2016 ESC Tips for the prognosis and remedy of acute and continual coronary heart failure’17 and ‘Replace on Cardiovascular Implantable Digital Gadget Infections and Their Administration: A Scientific Assertion From the American Coronary heart Affiliation’18. The final of which gives an necessary replace on suggestions for the care of sufferers with infections attributable to CIEDs, in addition to highlighting the analysis gaps. Research, opinions, and tips focussed on HF, telemonitoring and CIEDs dominate the record of high ten regionally cited articles.
Moreover, we are able to observe the articles which have had the strongest burst of citations since publication (see Supplementary Desk 4). The topics of all of articles with the strongest bursts are associated to telemonitoring or distant monitoring. The highest two are ‘Noninvasive house telemonitoring for sufferers with coronary heart failure at excessive threat of recurrent admission and demise: the Trans-European Community-Residence-Care Administration System (TEN-HMS) examine’ (energy = 36.55)19 and ‘Structured phone help or telemonitoring programmes for sufferers with continual coronary heart failure’ (energy = 31.81)20.
Temporal evolution of digital well being applied sciences in cardiovascular analysis
The expansion and temporal evolution of this matter was visualized utilizing doc co-citation methodology. Determine 5 reveals a birds-eye view of the twenty main divisions – or analysis streams – through which digital applied sciences have been utilized in cardiovascular analysis (Supplementary Fig. 2 reveals the analysis streams in a timeline format).
Determine 6 gives a visible illustration of the extent of analysis exercise inside every stream of digital well being purposes inside cardiovascular drugs (1990-2021) (see Supplementary Fig. 3 for deeper perception into the twenty analysis streams). It’s evident that inside the main streams, blood stress reactivity, bypass surgical procedure, cardiac reactivity to gaming and gamification are now not energetic analysis areas in digital well being purposes. We are able to clearly see that there are rising and heightened analysis actions within the areas of cardiac rehabilitation and out-of-hospital cardiac arrest. Analysis in distant monitoring, Digital Actuality, HF, transvenous lead extraction, distant monitoring, and arrythmias emerged between 2000-2010 and have maintained a excessive stage of scholarly curiosity since. Analysis into the appliance of wearables (smartwatches, physique sensors and so on.) and exercise monitoring for cardiovascular care, and eMRs, appeared to peak between 2015-2020 however at the moment are displaying indicators of slowing down. The oldest clusters, as decided by the imply yr of article publication are Cardiac reactivity (1981), and equally Blood stress reactivity (1984), and Software program evaluation of cardiac output (1989). The common yr the citing articles are 1991, 1993 and 2007 respectively, displaying that there’s little or no trendy analysis being performed in these areas. Contrastingly, analysis exercise we are able to see that essentially the most trendy matters are Cardiac rehabilitation (imply citing yr 2018), Exercise monitoring (2018), Radiology in sufferers with CIEDs, (2018), Arrythmias (2019) and Out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (2020).
Cardiac rehabilitation is an fascinating cluster in that it has a few of oldest articles, relationship from 1954, however it nonetheless a modern-day analysis space. The sooner papers from mid-1970’s-1980’s have a concentrate on behavioural change and self-efficacy21,22.
A paper by Chow, Redfern23, titled ‘Impact of Life-style-Targeted Textual content Messaging on Danger Issue Modification in Sufferers With Coronary Coronary heart Illness A Randomized Scientific Trial’ has obtained essentially the most native citations (n = 131, and globally n = 554) in addition to having the strongest burst of quotation (13.05) between 2017-2021. Chow, Redfern23, whose focus is secondary prevention of CHD, reveals that utilizing a text-message intervention could enhance cardiovascular threat components equivalent to blood lipids, bodily exercise, blood stress, BMI and tobacco consumption; a transparent instance of a easy digital well being utility for enhancing cardiovascular care outcomes. Lastly, analysis associated to HF, CIEDs and distant monitoring make an look in additional than half of the analysis.
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